An Aristocrat Would Give Vassals Land In An Agreement That The Vassals Would Then Give To The Lord

In the 11th century, developments in philosophy and theology led to increased intellectual activity, sometimes called the 12th century renaissance. The intellectual problems that were discussed during this period were the relationship of faith to reason, the existence and simplicity of God, the purpose of theology and metaphysics, and the questions of knowledge, universality and individualization. Philosophical discourse was stimulated by the rediscovery of Aristotle S. – more than 3000 pages of his works were finally translated – and his emphasis on empiricism and rationalism. Scholars such as Peter Abelard (1142) and Peter Lombard (1164) introduced Aristotelelic logic into theology. The development of water mills from their ancient origins was impressive and ranged from agriculture to sawmills for both wood and stone. At the time of the Domesday Book, most of the large villages had revolving mills; In England, there were about 6,500 in England. Hydropower has also been used in the mining industry for the extraction of ore from wells, steep grinding and even for feeding folding bellows. There was an important influence on religion, as many believed that the plague was God`s punishment for sinful ways.

Churches and buildings were not affected, but there were too few priests to maintain the old schedule. More than half of the priests who gave the last sacraments to the dying died themselves. The church moved to recruit replacements, but the process took time. New colleges have been opened at well-established universities and the training process has accelerated. The lack of priests has opened up new opportunities for lay women to take on more important and important tasks in local parishes. A Serf that dug the country around 1170 AD: “Digging,” detail of the Hunterian Psalter, Glasgow University Library MS Hunter. The High Middle Ages were a period of population expansion. The estimated population of Europe increased from 35 million to 80 million between 1000 and 1347, but the exact causes are not yet clear; Improved agricultural techniques, the decline of slavery, a warmer climate and the lack of invasion were all proposed. 90% of the European population remained farmers. Many were no longer on isolated farms, but had gathered in small communities, commonly known as farms or villages. These peasants were often subjected to noble masters and owed them rents and other services, in a system known as manorialism. During this period and beyond, there were still a few free farmers, who were more numerous in the southern regions of Europe than in the north.

The practice of shipping or producing new land, inciting the farmers who colonized it, has also contributed to population expansion. The serfs who occupied land had to work for the master of the manor who owned that country, and in exchange they were entitled to protection, justice and the right to exploit certain fields inside the mansion in order to earn a living. The Serfs often had to work not only in the Lord`s fields, but also in his mines, forests and roads. The mansion formed the basic unit of feudal society, and the master of a mansion and its serfs were legally, economically and socially linked. Serfs formed the lower class of feudal society. The manor system was an element of feudal society in the Middle Ages, characterized by the legal and economic power of the master of a mansion. The plague brought a definitive end to the gaiety in Western Europe. The system of domination was already in trouble, but black death ensured its fall in much of Western and Central Europe around 1500.